Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) is a widespread large and coarse shrub of the Solanaceae family. D. stramonium has a large root and taproot system, with a green or purple hairless, erect, and branching stem. It has football to egg shaped, hairless or semi-hairless leaves which have wavy-toothed to wavy-lobed edges. Showy, white or purple, trumpet-shaped flowers bloom June through September. Egg-shaped spiny pod fruits stand erect from the forks of its branches, which contain tiny brown to black seeds.
All parts of D. stramonium contains tropane alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. There are sixty-four different types of tropane alkaloids, however the principal alkaloid found is hyoscine. The range of toxicity is highly variable and unpredictable; toxicity may vary from leaf to leaf, plant to plant and season to season. The highest concentration occurs in D. stramonium seeds: approximately 0.1 mg of atropine per seed or 3-6 mg/50-100 seeds.
- dilated pupils
- frequent urination
- increased heart rate
- respiratory distress
- lowered body temperature
MECHANICAL CONTROL: hand-pulling while wearing gloves. Seedlings are readily killed by tillage. However, older plants may regenerate from lower nodes that are clipped or trampled. Hoe before weeds exceed 1/4 inch in height. Fire is effective on small jimsonweed.
CHEMICAL CONTROL: Several herbicides are effective.
- G Damerow The Chicken Health Handbook Storey Publishing (2015)
- Barajas, M.; Guharoy, S. Atropine intoxication secondary to the ingestion of jimson weed (Datura stramonium). ASHP Annu Meeting, 47 P-44D (1990)
- Flunker, L. K.; Damron, B. L.; Sundlof, S. F. Jimsonweed seed contamination of broiler chick and White Leghorn hen diets. Nutr Rep Int, 36(3), 551-556 (1987)
- Day, E. J.; Dilworth, B. C. Toxicity of jimson weed seed and cocoa shell meal to broilers. Poult Sci, 63(3), 466-468 (1984)