Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are annual or perennial blooming flowers. They are native to North and South Americas and the Mediterranean. It has been naturalized in the cooler temperate regions of southeastern Australia, New Zealand, eastern Canada, and throughout Europe. Lupinus are considered troublesome weeds in Australia. Lupinus are a large and varied group in the pea family. Large clusters of showy pea-like flowers develop along stems on long stalks. It has alternatively arranged, fan-shaped leaves which have 5-13 leaflets. They produce flat, oblong-shaped seedpods that hold seeds.
All parts of L. polyphyllus contain high amounts of quinolizidine alkaloids, which can be toxic to poultry if consumed in large quantities. The seeds and seedpods contain the highest concentration of toxins, but the leaves can also accumulate high amounts. Lupinus grown for cultivation tend to contain low levels of alkaloids.
- difficulty breathing
- aimlessly wandering
- Muscle twitching
- excessive salivation
CHEMICAL CONTROL: Lupine can be controlled with 2,4-D (1 kg ae/Ac), 2,4-D + dicamba (0.5 + 0.25 kg ai/Ac), or trichlopyr (0.25 to 0.75 kg ae/Ac). Spray actively growing plants after they are 10 cm high but before they bloom. Re-invasion is rapid and re-treatment may be necessary every 4 to 5 years.