Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis ) is a small herbaceous perennial plant with large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It is native to Europe and Asia, and was introduced to other areas of the world as a garden ornamental. A. aestivalis was introduced into North America initially as a horticultural plant, however it escaped cultivation and now grows in the wild in the western United States (California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Utah), Missouri, and New York. It grows abundantly in open forests and disturbed sites in the Western states. It also grows in hay fields, and on occasion can get mixed in with hay when baled.
All parts of A. aestivalis contains cardiac glycosides, which are cardiotoxic to poultry, resulting in fatal digestive and cardiac disturbances. Specific chemicals include adonitoxin, strophanthin, vernadigin, and cymarin. The leaves and flowers have the highest concentration of toxins.
- hay refusal
- loss of appetite
- cardiac arrhythmias
- muscle tremors
- weak peripheral pulse
- foul odor
- difficulty breathing
- dark mucus membranes
- sudden death
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