Ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris or Senecio jacobaea) is a biennial (sometimes annual or perennial) herbaceous flowering plant. It is considered an invasive weed in most parts of the world and is well known for its poisonous effects on livestock over the years. It is recognized by its daisy-like yellow flowers, which contain 13 petals. Ragwort has erect, unbranched stems that grow up to 4 feet in height and branch near their tips. As a biennial, tansy ragwort spends the first year in the rosette stage with dark green basal leaves that appear ruffled. During the second year, one or two flowering stems form.
Ragwort contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (jacobine, eruifoline, and senecionine) which can cause liver damage in poultry, when consumed over a period of time. Unfortunately, clinical signs take a while to become apparent, which is usually after liver damage is advanced and irreversible.
- aimlessly wandering
- chronic weight loss
MANUAL CONTROL: Ragwort can be controlled through hand pulling plants from the soil. However the entire root needs to be removed in order to prevent regrowth. Plants are easiest to remove after plants have bolted but prior to flowering, and following a rainfall when the soil is moist and easier to break through.
MECHANICAL CONTROL: Mowing is not an effective method of control for ragwort.
CHEMICAL CONTROL: Research results show that tansy ragwort can be controlled with 2,4-D (low volatile ester or emulsifiable acid) at 0.5-1.0 kg pounds active ingredient per acre, or by dicamba at 0.23 to 0.5 kg active ingredient per acre. Tansy ragwort should be sprayed in the rosette stage. Both herbicides will injure or kill legumes.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: The tansy ragwort flea beetle, Longitarsus jacobaeae, larvae and adults are attack tansy ragwort. Larvae feed on and within the roots and the adults feed on leaves. The ragwort seedhead fly, Botanophila seneciella, larvae feed within seedheads, often destroying all of the developing seeds. The cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae, caterpillars can completely defoliate tansy ragwort.
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